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AFTERMATH OF THE 9-11 TERRORIST ATTACK:

HELPING CHILDREN COPE

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The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) has provided the following handout. Other organizations may use it without receiving specific permission as long as it is reprinted or posted to websites verbatim, credits NASP, and includes links to the NASP website.

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A National Tragedy: Helping Children Cope
Tips for Parents and Teachers

The recent tragic acts of terrorism are unprecedented in the American experience.  Children, like many people, may be confused or frightened by the news and will look to adults for information and guidance on how to react.  Parents and school personnel can help children cope first and foremost by establishing a sense of safety and security. As the nation learns more about what happened and why, adults can continue to help children work through their emotions and perhaps even use the process as a learning experience.

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All Adults Should:

1. Model calm and control.  Children take their emotional cues from the significant adults in their lives. Avoid appearing anxious or frightened.

2. Reassure children that they are safe and so are the other important adults in their lives. Explain that these buildings were targeted for their symbolism and that schools, neighborhoods, and regular office buildings are not at risk. 

3. Remind them that trustworthy people are in charge.  Explain that the government emergency workers, police, firefighters, doctors, and the military are helping people who are hurt and are working to ensure that no further tragedies occur.

4. Let children know that it is okay to feel upset.  Explain that all feelings are okay when a tragedy like this occurs.  Let children talk about their feelings and help put them into perspective.  Even anger is okay, but children may need help and patience from adults to assist them in expressing these feelings appropriately.

5. Observe childrenís emotional state.  Depending on their age, children may not express their concerns verbally. Changes in behavior, appetite, and sleep patterns can also indicate a childís level of grief, anxiety or discomfort.  Children will express their emotions differently. There is no right or wrong way to feel or express grief. 

6. Look for children at greater risk.  Children who have had a past traumatic experience or personal loss, suffer from depression or other mental illness, or with special needs may be at greater risk for severe reactions than others.  Be particularly observant for those who may be at risk of suicide.  Seek the help of mental health professional if you are at all concerned.

7. Tell children the truth. Donít try to pretend the event has not occurred or that it is not serious.  Children are smart.  They will be more worried if they think you are too afraid to tell them what is happening.

8. Stick to the facts.  Donít embellish or speculate about what has happened and what might happen. Donít dwell on the scale or scope of the tragedy, particularly with young children.

9. Keep your explanations developmentally appropriate.

bullet Early elementary school children need brief, simple information that should be balanced with reassurances that the daily structures of their lives will not change.
bullet Upper elementary and early middle school children will be more vocal in asking questions about whether they truly are safe and what is being done at their school.  They may need assistance separating reality from fantasy.
bullet Upper middle school and high school students will have strong and varying opinions about the causes of violence in schools and society.  They will share concrete suggestions about how to make school safer and how to prevent tragedies in society. They will be more committed to doing something to help the victims and affected community. 
bullet For all children, encourage them to verbalize their thoughts and feelings. Be a good listener!

10.  Monitor Your Own Stress Level.  Donít ignore your own feelings of anxiety, grief, and anger. Talking to friends, family members, religious leaders, and mental health counselors can help. It is okay to let your children know that you are sad, but that you believe things will get better. You will be better able to support your children if you can express your own emotions in a productive manner. Get appropriate sleep, nutrition, and exercise.

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What Parents Can Do:

1. Focus on your children over the next week or so.  Tell them you love them and everything will be okay. Try to help them understand what has happened, keeping in mind their developmental level.

2. Make time to talk with your children.  Remember if you do not talk to your children about this incident someone else will. Take some time and determine what you wish to say.

3. Stay close to your children. Your physical presence will reassure them and give you the opportunity to monitor their reaction. Many children will want actual physical contact.  Give plenty of hugs.  Let them sit close to you, and make sure to take extra time at bedtime to cuddle and to reassure them that they are loved and safe. 

4. Limit your childís television viewing of these events.  If they must watch, watch with them for a brief time; then turn the set off.  Donít sit mesmerized re-watching the same events over and over again.

5. Maintain a "normal" routine. To the extent possible stick to your familyís normal routine for dinner, homework, chores, bedtime, etc., but donít be inflexible.  Children may have a hard time concentrating on schoolwork or falling asleep at night.

6. Spend extra time reading or playing quiet games with your children before bed.  These activities are calming, foster a sense of closeness and security, and reinforce a sense of normalcy. Spend more time tucking them in.  Let them sleep with a light on if they ask for it.

7. Safeguard your childrenís physical health.  Stress can take a physical toll on children as well as adults.  Make sure your children get appropriate sleep, exercise, and nutrition.

8. Consider praying or thinking hopeful thoughts for the victims and their families.  It may be a good time to take your children to your house of worship, write a poem, or draw a picture to help your child express their feelings and feel that they are somehow supporting the victims and their families.

9. Find out what resources your school has in place to help children cope.  Most schools are likely to be open and often are a good place for children to regain a sense of normalcy.  Being with their friends and teachers can help.  Schools should also have a plan for making counseling available to children and adults who need it. 

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What Schools Can Do:

1. Assure children that they are safe and that schools are well prepared to take care of all children at all times.

2. Maintain structure and stability within the schools. It would be best, however, not to have tests or major projects within the next few days.

3. Have a plan for the first few days back at school.  Include school psychologists, counselors, and crisis team members in planning the schoolís response.

4. Provide teachers and parents with information about what to say and do for children in school and at home.

5. Have teachers provide information directly to their students, not during the public address announcements.

6. Have school psychologists and counselors available to talk to student and staff who may need or want extra support.

7. Be aware of students who may have recently experienced a personal tragedy or a have personal connection to victims or their families.  Even a child who has been to visit the Pentagon or the World Trade Center may feel a personal loss. Provide these students extra support and leniency if necessary. 

8. Know what community resources are available for children who may need extra counseling. School psychologists can be very helpful in directing families to the right community resources.

9. Allow time for age appropriate classroom discussion and activities. Do not expect teachers to provide all of the answers.  They should ask questions and guide the discussion, but not dominate it.  Other activities can include art and writing projects, play acting, and physical games.

10.  Be careful not to stereotype people or countries that might be home to the terrorists. Children can easily generalize negative statements and develop prejudice. Talk about tolerance and justice versus vengeance. Stop any bullying or teasing of students immediately.

11.  Refer children who exhibit extreme anxiety, fear or anger to mental health counselors in the school. Inform their parents.

12.  Provide an outlet for studentsí desire to help.  Consider making get well cards or sending letters to the families and survivors of the tragedy, or writing thank you letters to doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals as well as emergency rescue workers, firefighters and police.

13.  Monitor or restrict viewing of this horrendous event as well as the aftermath.

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For information on helping children and youth with this crisis:

Contact NASP at (301) 657-0270 or visit NASPís website at www.nasponline.org.  Materials on related topics will be posted over the next few days.

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About the NASP:

NASP represents 22,000 school psychologists and related professionals throughout the United States and abroad.  NASPís mission is to promote educationally and psychologically healthy environments for all children and youth by implementing research-based, effective programs that prevent problems, enhance independence and promote optimal learning.  This is accomplished through state-of-the-art research and training, advocacy, ongoing program evaluation, and caring professional service.

Copyright © 2001 is held by the NASP
Text extracted from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/terrorism.html
Originally posted: 2001-SEP-19
Latest update: 2001-SEP-19
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