Physician assisted suicide (PAS):
Does PAS increase pain of dying patients?
Overview of the Oregon law:
A Death With
Dignity law went into effect in Oregon in 1997. It allows some
terminally-ill patients to request assistance in committing suicide. They
must have fewer than six months to live. They must make at least two oral
requests for help, make at least one written request, and convince two physicians
that they are not depressed or suffering from another mental illness.
By the end of 2003, 171 individuals have ended their life with the help of lethal
prescriptions. The number appears to be leveling-off at fewer than 50
assisted suicides per year. Physician assisted suicide under the act
accounts for only one-seventh of one percent of all deaths in the state.
According to the Associated Press, there is a widespread belief
that pain control has improved markedly in Oregon following the passage of
the law. Pain control for those who took advantage of the law certainly has
improved; they were able to hasten their death and be free of protracted physical
and emotional pain. But about 99.9% of people in Oregon still die a natural
death, or die in accidents, unassisted suicide, or as a result of homicide.
Of these, most are believed to die due to natural causes; many spend their
last weeks in moderate or severe pain.
Researchers at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU)
conducted a survey of the level of pain among 1,724 patients in Oregon who
died outside of hospitals -- that is, at home, in nursing homes or assisted
living centers. Their findings were published in the Journal of
Palliative Medicine. 4 They studied 1,384 patients who died from 2000-JUN to 2002-MAR, and compared
them with 340 who had died between 1996-NOV and 1997-DEC, mostly before the PAS became available in 1997-NOV. Actually, the study actually
examined pain levels as subjectively perceived by family members of the
patient, not the patients themselves.
The study found that 48% of the post-1997 patients were judged to be in
moderate or severe pain in their last week of life, compared to 31% of the
pre-1997 patients. Associated Press reported that:
"After accounting for
medical and demographic differences, the researchers concluded that dying
patients in the later group were twice as likely to be described as having
endured moderate or severe pain."
Interpretation of the results by the researchers and secular media:
Researchers suggested three reasons why an increased number of patients
are judged to be in moderate or severe pain may be:
||The two ballots and the intense public, legislative, court and
religious debate over the Death with Dignity law raised
expectations about pain control in the state. Family members have become
sensitized to pain being experienced by their terminally ill loved ones. The Oregonian newspaper indicated that recent studies "...have
suggested that both doctors and patients are more aware of the
importance of pain relief." 2
||Stretched budgets for the care of Medicaid and Medicare patients
prevent adequate patient care. 1
||"The negative impact of overstretching nursing resources on pain
management ...." 2
The Oregonian newspaper added two more possible reasons:
||In recent years, there has been "...controversy over the misuse
and addictiveness of the prescription narcotic OxyContin [which has]
scared doctors and patients." The end result is that some patients
are not prescribed a sufficiently high dose to control pain.
||Some physicians have been "...skittish about prescribing strong
pain drugs..." because the U.S. Attorney General has threatened to
prosecute doctors for violating federal drug laws if they prescribed a
lethal dose of medication in response to a request for assisted suicide
under Oregon law. Again, the result is that some physicians feel that
the government is looking over their sholder whenever they issue a
prescription for narcotics. Some of their patients are
under-medicated and others are not medicated at all. 2
The study was led by Dr. Erik Fromme, assistant professor of general
medicine and geriatrics at OHSU and senior scholar in its Center for
Ethics in Health Care. He said:
"What this study did for me was
contrast our view of things versus what's actually happening....People all
around the state have heard the publicity, but they haven't necessarily
gotten better care. If people's expectations are higher, I'm glad. But
in addition to expecting more, I hope they'll push health care providers to
get them the care and pain relief they need."
Ann Jackson, executive director of the Oregon Hospice Association said that the results show how important it is for family members "to
be constantly vigilant when it comes to pain and end-of-life care. The system default is to do as little as
Interpretation of the results by the conservative religious media:
The conservative religious media are have given the report from
Oregon a high profile. It supplies them with ammunition with which they can fight current
initiatives to bring PAS choice to Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, and Vermont.
However, they seem to have distorted their coverage of the Oregon study.
The conservative religious media generally imply that:
||The Oregon study is an objective evaluation, implying that actual
pain levels of dying patients were measured and have increased. Secular
media generally report that the study is subjective and the result of
the opinion of families of patients.
||The direct cause of the problem is a degeneration in the quality of
palliative care in the state.
||The availability of PAS is the direct cause of the deterioration in
They generally ignore what are probably the main reasons for the
degeneration in care:
||As a result of publicity and debate surrounding PAS, families of
terminally ill patients have now become much more sensitized to levels
of pain that are endured by their loved ones.
||Medicare and Medicaid is chronically under-funded and that funding
is is not keeping up with the increased drain on the system due to
increased poverty and an aging population in the U.S.
||There are inadequate nursing resources in the state.
||There are problems in prescribing medication arising from controversy over its
addictive properties and threats of prosecution by the Federal
Family News in Focus, a service of the fundamentalist group, Focus on the Family:
||Concluded that "The study shows terminal patients in Oregon are
about twice as likely now to suffer pain than before assisted suicide
became legal." This is not accurate; the research showed that
a subjective evaluation by families of a dying person indicated that
more patients experience moderate or severe pain. The actual pain being
experienced by the terminally ill was not measured.
||Quoted Carrie Gordon Earll, their bioethics analyst, who said that
the deterioration of the state of palliative care in Oregon should have
been anticipated. She said that:
"Earlier studies were interpreted to
indicate that there was somehow a silver lining in helping bring better
palliative care to Oregon after they had legalized assisted suicide. And
that doesn't even make sense because the message is: if you can't deal
with your pain and your symptoms, go a head and kill yourself." 3
LifeNews interviewed Dr. Robert Orr,
president of the Vermont Alliance for Ethical Healthcare about the OHSU
report. He said:
"Proponents of the legalization of physician-assisted
suicide in Vermont often cite the Oregon experience, saying that the
1997 passage of such a law in that state has resulted in better
end-of-life care. The facts contradict this assertion....Indeed, Oregon
was a pioneer in hospice care, leading the nation in percentage of
patients dying at home with hospice care...But this happened in the
1980s and early '90's -- several years before legalization of
physician-assisted suicide. And this study from the Journal of
Palliative Medicine now shows that pain management at the end of life is
no better in Oregon than in other states. In fact, this most important
quality indicator of hospice care has deteriorated since 1997." 5
- "Study: Ore. patients twice as likely to experience pain at end of
life," KGW.COM, 2004-JUL-23, at: http://www.kgw.com/
- Don Colburn, "Study says pain control isn't better. An OHSU study
finds that pain management has not kept up with expectations of the 1997 law,"
The Oregonian, 2004-JUL-23, at: http://www.oregonlive.com/
- Terry Phillips, "Oregon Patients Die in Pain, Despite Assisted
Suicide," Family News in Focus, 2004-AUG-2, at: http://www.family.org/
- Erik K. Fromme, et al., "Increased Family Reports
of Pain or Distress in Dying Oregonians: 1996 to 2002, Journal of Palliative
Medicine, 2004-JUN-01, Vol 7, #3, Pages 431 to 442. Abstract available
at Ingenta, at: http://www.ingenta.com The article itself can be ordered from http://www.ingenta.com/ for $42.00 US plus tax.
- Paul Nowak, "Palliative Care for Elderly, Disabled, Worse Since
Assisted Suicide Legalized," LifeNews. Online at Christian Life
Resources at: http://www.christianliferesources.com/
Copyright © 2004 to 2010 by Ontario Consultants on
Last updated 2010-SEP-03
Author: Bruce A Robinson