A treatise against religious intolerance by Richard Dixon
Part 1: "Not in my name"
Introduction and perspective:
Ever since the advent of 9/11 and the subsequent backlash against Arabs and
Muslims alike, the writing of this essay for me has been both a spiritual
journey and a pilgrimage for justice and sanity. It has been a personal appeal
for us to bring out the essence of good in all our humanity. It has been a voice
in the wilderness declaring that we are all of God's children and that no one
speaks for God but God himself. He is the redeemer, protector, all-powerful, the
light and the way.
I dedicate this essay to those who have fallen victim to the terrible plight of
terrorism both in this country and around the world. My heart goes out to you. I
know that I can't begin to feel your pain, anguish, and suffering. I pray to
almighty God that he will heal you spiritually, emotionally, physically, and
To the men & women in uniforms in New York City, Washington, DC, Fairfax
County, Virginia, Somerset, Pennsylvania, and our Armed Forces, I salute you
because you are indeed my heroes. On that faithful day on September 11, you were
there for us in all that misery and devastation.
To my fellow American Muslim brothers and sisters who have endured this terrible
wave of backlash, I stand with you side by side.
To the likes of Timothy McVeigh and Osama Bin Laden:
You will not win because people of good conscience from various races, creeds,
cultures, and religions will stand up as a united front to your evil oppression.
I also would like to thank Neria Harish Hebbar, MD and the brothers and sisters
of Indian Nest.com: A Study In Diversity (http://www.indianest.com/)
for allowing me the opportunity to reprint his poem entitled "Lest Bigotry
Consume Us All. In addition, I would
also like to thank the brothers and sisters of the Islamic Circle of North
America (ICNA) and their project Website called WhyIslam.org (http://www.whyislam.org)
for sending me both a copy of the Holy Qur'an and a Concordance. Without which I
would have never really grasped the full meaning of Islam and its message of
peace, tolerance, and understanding.
Blessed In The Name Of God Almighty,
Richard L. Dixon.
"Not in my name:" A treatise against religious intolerance:
In The Name Of The Most Merciful God:
I have read with dismay and have been appalled by the insensitive and intolerant
remarks that some Americans have made against the religion of Islam and my fellow American
Muslim brothers and sisters. Their rhetoric has a racist and warlike tone to
them. During a time that we as Americans should be united against the extremist
fringe Islamist terrorist like Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda, you seek to drive a
wedge of fear between us by condemning a whole group of innocent individuals.
Some of the remarks to which have appeared in the media are repeated below:
In a 2001-NOV-20 dedication of a chapel in North Carolina
Evangelist Frank Graham said the following about Islam:
"...as a very evil and wicked religion.. the God of Islam is not the same
He's not the Son of God of the Christian or Judeo-Christian faith. It's a
different God, and I believe it is a very evil and wicked religion.. I don't
believe this is a wonderful, peaceful religion.. when you read the Koran and
read the verses from the Koran, it instructs the killing of the infidel, for
those who are non-Muslim." 1
One week later, on 2001-NOV-28 Reverend James Meredith of
the Southern Baptist Convention "urged his 16 million members to
fast and pray for Muslims so God will miraculously reveal himself through
Jesus Christ to Muslims on December 16, the last day of Ramadan, Islam's
holy month. Just as they can pray and fast, we want to pray and fast that
they will find the true way to heaven, and this is through Jesus Christ
said Merritt." 2 He continued: "There is the idea that we all worship the same God
at these interfaith meetings and we do not. If Jesus Christ is the only
way to heaven, the only true religion therefore must by Christianity.
Every other religion gives a false hope of having a relationship with God.
That's not what I say, that's what Jesus says." 3
It wasn't long thereafter that Reverend Maury Davis, Pastor of Cornerstone Church in Nashville, TN was reported as saying:
"I want to go on record as telling you that I believe the greatest threat
to the American way of life, to the Constitution of the United States of America
and to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, is the religion of Islam as it stands today." The reporter commented that "Davis admitted that he has never read the Koran but relied on others who have
written about the religion." 4
Dr. Pat Robertson of CBN'S 700
Club characterized Arab and Muslim Immigrants and citizens as "a veritable infestation of America with
violent subversive Muslims...our immigration policies are now so skewed
towards the Middle East and away from Europe that we have introduced these
people into our midst and undoubtedly there are terrorist cells all over
them. They want to coexist until they can control, dominate, and then if
need be destroy." 5
Reverend Jerry Vine, also of the Southern Baptist Convention, said of Islam: "Islam was founded by Mohammed, a demon
possessed pedophile who had 12 wives and his last one was a nine-year old
girl." 6 in a the 2002-JUN-12 episode of of the
"Crossfire" program on CNN news, Dr. Jerry Falwell of Liberty
University stood behind the Reverend Vine's comments. Falwell said:
"I'll tell you what he did. I'll tell you what he did, I'll let you decide
if he's a pedophile. Among his many wives, and no Muslim scholar denies this, he
had a wife who was given to him-betrothed to him at age six by his best friend,
Java Bacar (ph), and he-at age nine, when she was nine consummated the marriage.
Now in a civilized society when a 54 year old man consummates a marriage with a
nine-year old girl, I think it is reasonable to believe that to say that
pedophilia is not taking it beyond the limits of reality." 7
Since the tragic attacks on our country on 9/11 we are indeed
living in perilous times. There are increasing incidents of racial attacks
against Muslims, Arabs, Jews or anybody else from a Middle Eastern or Asian
background. Shortly after 9/11, there were 520 documented violent incidents of
terror against Arab and Muslim Americans. The remarks against Islam
and Muslims in general may well have helped to fan the flames of
hate that are now threatening to engulf our country. The comments do not promote for religious tolerance, which has
been an integral part of our country's history. I truly believe that they are
setting the stage for a clash of civilizations between Christianity and Islam.
Hussein Ibish of The American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee validated this point brilliantly in his debate against Jerry Falwell in the
same Crossfire episode on June 12, 2002. Ibish said:
"They are doing it because I think in many cases these are fundamentalists
dispensationalists who yearn for Armageddon. They like Bin Laden. They have the
same agenda. They want to promote a generalized conflict between the Islamic
world and the West. They are trying to stoke the fires of hatred and fear. They
want to provoke a conflict. That's why they're being so insulting, so outrageous
and so provocative. It is in fact.. the analogue of the kind of hateful rhetoric
that you see also in the Middle East, and all of it is wrong and bad." 7
The FBI in its report on domestic
terrorist cults and right-wing religious groups entitled Project Megiddo:
pointed out the danger that some radical Conservative Christian faith groups pose to Middle East Peace:
"There is general concern among Israeli officials that Jewish and Islamic
extremists may react violently to the influx of Christians, particularly near
the Temple Mount. The primary concern is that extreme millennial cults will
engage in proactive violence designed to hasten the Second Coming of Christ.
Perhaps the most likely scenario involves an attack on the Al-Aqsa Mosque or the
Dome of the Rock. Some millennial cults hold that these structures must be
destroyed so that the Jewish Temple can be rebuilt, which they see as a
prerequisite for the return of the Messiah. Additionally, several religious
cults have already made inroads into Israel, apparently in preparation for what
they believe to be the end times."
It is beyond the scope of this document to assess the potential repercussions
from an attack on Jewish or Islamic holy sites in Jerusalem. It goes without
saying, however, that an attack on the Dome of the Rock or the Al-Aqsa Mosque would have very serious implications. In segments of the Islamic world, close
political and cultural ties between Israel and the United States are often
perceived as symbolic of anti-Islamic policies by the Western World. Attacks on
Islamic holy sites in Jerusalem, particularly by Christian or Jewish extremists,
are likely to be perceived by Islamic extremists as attacks on Islam itself.
Finally, the possibility exists that Islamic extremist groups will capitalize
upon the huge influx of foreigners into Jerusalem and engage in a symbolic
Economist and presidential candidate Lyndon Larouche predicted the outcome of a
war between Christianity and Islam:
"If these things are allowed to continue this kind of war which they've got
young Bush tied into right now, then I assure you, given the realities of
the economic situation, given the military realities, given the political
realities, you will not have civilized life on this planet for generations
yet to come: a dark age for all of humanity." 10
Lost in the controversy has been Islam itself. Many in the West have
failed to grasp the its true nature, its noble purpose, and how it fits into
the promulgation of mankind. One cannot really appreciate the beauty, wonder,
and sheer simplicity of this glorious religion without knowing the history and
tenets of the Islamic Faith.
Islam means "submission to the Will of God." In its ethical sense Islam
signifies striving after the ideal. A Muslim is one who submits to the Will
of God. Islam and Muslim derive from the same world as the Arabic for peace.
The traditional Muslim greeting is "Peace be unto you." Islam offers hope for
salvation to the righteous and God-fearing of all religions. Muslims believe
in the Divine Revelations of many prophets including Abraham, Moses, Jesus,
Muhammad, but do not believe that God assumed human form. The Qur'an, Muslims
believe, is God's Word and Final Revelation to The Prophet Muhammad. 11
There are five Pillars to Islam that every devout Muslim must adhere to,
- Shahadah -- the first of the five basic foundations -- is the
knowingly and voluntarily, of: "La ilaha illal lahu Muhammadur rasulul lah."
"There is no god except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." This declaration is the basis of all actions in Islam.
basic duties follow from this affirmation.
- Salah --compulsory prayer -- is offered five times a day. It is a practical
demonstration of faith, and keeps a believer in touch with her/his Creator. The
benefits of Salah are far-reaching, long lasting and immeasurable. It develops in a
believer the qualities of self-discipline, steadfastness and obedience to the
Truth, leading him/her to be patient, honest, and truthful in the affairs of her life.
- Zakah -- welfare contribution -- is a compulsory payment from a Muslim's
savings. It can only be spent on helping the poor, the needy, and the
and for the general uplifting of society. Zakah is one of the
fundamental principles of Islamic economy, which insures an equitable society
where everyone has a right to contribute and share.
- Sawm is the annual obligatory fasting during the month of Ramadan - the
month of the Islamic lunar calendar. A Muslim every day of this month,
refrains from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex, from dawn to sunset. Sawm develops
a believer's moral and spiritual standard and keeps him away from selfishness, greed,
extravagance and other vices. Sawm is an annual training program that
increases a Muslim's determination to fulfill his obligation to the Almighty
- Hajj -- the pilgrimage to the House of Allah -- is an annual event.
It is obligatory on
those Muslims who can afford to undertake it, and whose
health permits it, at least once in their
lifetime. It is a journey to the "House of Allah" (Al-Ka'bah) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in
the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. Hajj symbolizes the unity of humankind;
Muslims from every race and nationality assemble together in equality and
fraternity to worship their Lord. 12
There are approximately 1.6 billion men, women, and child who adhere to the
Islamic faith. They come from every continent on the Globe. Within the
United States alone Islamic groups estimate that there are six to seven million individuals who call
Many western religious leaders have failed to grasp the similarities among Christianity, Islam,
and Judaism. That being, we are all descendants of the great prophet Abraham
and that God has made each and every one of us in his own image regardless
of race, creed, or color.
The fundamental concept which needs to be emphasized is that humans are created in the image of the Creator of the universe. This
defines the individual as different than any animal. That each individual
has, with the cognitive powers of reason, a power of creativity, which no
animal has. And therefore, each human being is born good, or at least
redeemable to good; and each human being is a life, which is sacred in the
eyes of the Creator because we embody the quality of the Creator. 13
Long before the terrible plights against humanity such as slavery, the
inquisition, and the Holocaust, the religion of Islam was and still is the
beacon of universal brotherhood that the world is desperately trying to seek
out. History has proven wrong the teaching that Islam is a religion of war and
violence. Islam has always been about respect
and tolerance. Since the beginning of the Crusades (starting in 1095 under
the decree of Pope Urban II and Pope Innocent III thereafter) to the present
21st century, there has been a concerted effort by some
Christian leaders to wage a campaign of disinformation, economical pressure,
political influence, military might, colonialism, and religious
indoctrination with the goal of reducing the influence of Islam throughout the world.
Despite the presence of violence in many regions of the world ranging from
Ireland to Lebanon to the pacific Basin and involving many religions from
Christianity to Hinduism, The Western world associates Islam more than any
other religion with violence. The Muslim conquest of Spain, Crusades-which
were not begun by Muslims, and the Ottoman domination of Eastern Europe has
provided a historical memory of Islam as being related to force and power.
Moreover, the upheavals of the past few decades in the Middle East have only reinforced the ideal prevalent in the West that in some
special way Islam is related to violence. 14
Islam is also about moderation and respect for humanity. The lives of all
humans are sacred. It has never espoused hatred or attacks on innocent human
beings. It is against the very character of the great prophet Mohammad to
preach terrorism and the harming of innocent people. Even in war, Islamic
law states that the preservation of noncombatants should be preserved at all
Islamic law opposes all uses of force in this sense except in the cause of
war or for punishment of criminals in accordance with the Shari'a. Even in
war, however, the inflicting of any injury to women and children is
forbidden, as is the use of force against civilians. Only fighters in the
field of battle must be confronted with force it is only against them that
injurious physical force can be used. Inflicting injuries outside of this
context or in the punishment of criminals according to the dictum of the
Shari'a and the views of a judge is completely forbidden by Islamic law.15
The Holy Quran is very clear about the unnecessary taking of human life: "On that account: We ordained for the Children Of Israel that if anyone slew
a person-unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land. It
would as if he slew the whole people. And if anyone saved a life, it would
be as if he saved the life of the whole people." 16
Throughout the ages, Islamic civilization has proven to be a haven for other
religious minorities fleeing religious persecution. The Muslims rulers of
those times practiced the highest forms of compassion, tolerance, and
pacifism towards their subjects. Whether it was India, Spain (Andalusia),
The Arabian Peninsula or Ancient Palestine. In these societies, the highest
levels of culture were advanced in the arts, sciences, mathematics,
medicine, and commerce. The great orientalist, lecturer, and writer Muhammad
Marmaduke Pickthall espoused the role and importance that religious
tolerance has played in Islamic history:He wrote: "There is no doubt that, in the eyes of history, religious toleration is the
highest evidence of culture in a people. Let no Muslim, when looking on the
ruin of the Muslim realm which as compassed through the agency of these very
peoples whom the Muslims had tolerated and protected through the
centuries. Let no Muslim seeing this, imagine that toleration is a weakness
in Islam." 17
Under the rule of the Great Caliph of Palestine Umar,
Muslims brought civilization to Jerusalem and all of Palestine. Instead of
beliefs that showed no respect for other people's sacred values, and which
killed them simply out of differences of belief, there reigned the just,
tolerant, and moderate culture of Islam. After its capture by Umar, Muslims,
Christians, and Jews lived together in peace and harmony in Palestine.
Muslims never tried to use force to make people convert, although some
non-Muslims did so of their own free will. 18
It is quite evident based on the facts that I have presented, that with the
advent of Islam upon the world scene, no other religion up to that point (in
its purest form) had espoused the principles of universal brotherhood,
compassion, tolerance, and human rights.
According to the Islamic Council's declaration in the year 2002,
"Islam gave to mankind an ideal code of human rights fourteen centuries ago.
These rights aim at conferring honour and dignity on mankind and eliminating
exploitation, oppression, and injustice. Human rights in Islam are firmly
rooted in the belief that God, and God alone, is the lawgiver and the source
of all human rights. Due to their divine origin, no ruler, government,
assembly or authority can curtail or violate in any way the human rights
conferred by God, nor can they be surrendered." 19
The idea that comes closest to the Islamic interpretation of a code of human
rights is the American form of constitutional government. Muslims in this
country have had the freedom to demonstrate the true nature of Islam because
of the freedoms that are not necessarily forthcoming in some repressive
It is unfortunate that human rights are being trampled upon with impunity in
many countries of the world, including some Muslim countries. Such
violations are a matter of serious concern and are arousing the conscience
of more and more people throughout the world. 20
Since the advent of colonialism, the traditional educational institutions
that were used to foster a more mainstream form of Islam was destroyed so
that it was easier to rule the inhabitants with an iron rule by the European
Imperialists. The end results were an uneducated populace, dictatorial
rulers who cared more for themselves then the people, and individuals who
were allowed to make individual interpretations of Islamic Law that were
inconsistent with centuries of Islamic traditions and customs. Harun Yahya
in his book "Islam Denounces Terrorism" points out the harm that was
done to Traditional Islam by the meddling influence of European Colonialism:
The result has been examples of extreme religious practice devoid of any
real knowledge and characterized by bigotry, intolerance, harshness, and
excessiveness-all of which are in opposition to Islam as exemplified by the
Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, who always
advocated the middle way. 21
It can be safely said that the mass importation of the American idea of
democracy from an Islamic standpoint to the mass populace of these countries
would stifle the negative effects of Islamism that is trying to grasp hold
in the Muslim world. The Muslim populations have great respect for American
values and traditions but not pop culture or rampant militarism. The values
and ideas I talk about are called the "American Intellectual Tradition."
This tradition derives its roots from the Abrahamic
religions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. It is the belief that as I
had stated earlier in this paper, that we were created in the image of our
creator with cognitive abilities such as the powers of reason and
creativity. Mr. LaRouche elaborated further about the democratic traditions
that has arisen from this most basic principle:
"Function of government must be, not to impose religion, but to recognize
this as a principle of natural law: that government has no right to exist,
except as insofar as it is efficiently committed to promote the general
welfare of all people, and their posterity. And to honor the aspirations and
achievements of those who have gone before us, who created the foundation
upon which we are able to do good. That's the function of government. That's
the meaning of the Preamble of the Constitution, which is the fundamental
Constitutional law of the United States-the principle of the General
Welfare-to promote and defend our sovereignty, and to promote the common
good, both for our people, and in our relations among states abroad." 22
Before the advent of Colonialism, there were many noble and just Muslim
rulers who embodied the principle of the "American Intellectual Tradition"
within the confines of the Islamic faith in every corner of the Muslim
world. Among them was Akbar The Great (1543-1605), Suleyman The Magnificent
(1494-1566), and Saladin Sultan Of Egypt (1138-1193). During their
reigns, the Islamic faith's commitment to justice, compassion, and tolerance
was commonplace. It is important to bring light upon their accomplishments
because in Euro-centric history, noble Muslim rulers are looked upon as
barbaric and bloodthirsty. It was Saladin who repelled the Crusaders who
were hell bent on killing every Muslim in sight. They killed 70,000 in total.
In fact, the streets of Jerusalem ran red with blood. The Crusaders
destroyed Mosques and killed Byzantine Christians and Jews as well. When
Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 from the Knights of the Latin Kingdom, he
could have easily replicated the carnage that was perpetuated upon the
Muslim citizenry. Instead, upon retaking Jerusalem, he allowed the people to
keep their churches and synagogues. Examples of Saladin's compassion
included dispatching his own personal physician when the General of the
Crusader army took ill and being moved to tears when a woman had lost a
child and dispatching his own personal envoy to find the missing little one.
The legacy of Suleyman was even more famous then that of Saladin. Suleyman
was called the magnificent in the Western world but known as the lawgiver in
In Islamic history, Suleyman is regarded as the perfect Islamic ruler in
history. He is asserted as embodying all the necessary characteristics of an
Islamic ruler, the most important of which is justice ('adale ). The Qur'an
itself points to King Solomon as embodying the perfect monarch because he so
perfectly embodied 'adale ; Suleyman, named after Solomon, is regarded in
Islamic history as the second Solomon. The reign of Suleyman in Ottoman and
Islamic history is generally regarded as the period of greatest justice and
harmony in any Islamic state. 23
Under Suleyman, the Ottoman Empire reached its peak in terms of influence
and shaping of World History. However, it was his reputation as a lawgiver
that he was most known for. In the Ottoman Empire, the Sultan was known as
the Supreme Lawgiver. In fact, they had a whole set of laws outside the
Shari'a called Kanun. As the Supreme Lawgiver, the Sultan could overturn
situations in which he felt it was unjust to the common people. Therefore,
it was not uncommon for Suleyman to move amongest his subjects undetected in
order to spot situations where they were being mistreated. Just as with
Saladin, the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire were allowed to live and
practice their faiths unmolested this included whole Jewish and Christian
Communities. In fact, after the fall of Andalusia (Spain) in 1492 to the
Christian Conquerors Queen Isabelle and King Ferdinand, the Jews escaped to
Istanbul because of the Christians' policy of force conversion.
Akbar the Great was the lesser known of the three Sultan rulers.
Akbar was also an exact contemporary of Elizabeth I of England but was the
ruler of far greater number of people in India than the sparse population of
England. The population of the subcontinent of India at the end of the
sixteenth century is estimated at 140 million people with most of them
living in the territory controlled by Akbar, between the Himalayas and the
Deccan plateau. Compare this with the population of five million in England
and 40 million in Western Europe. Akbar was indeed a true monarch and India
with its enormous manpower quickly became rich again.
The benevolent monarch suspended all unjust taxation of non-Muslims. These
taxes, called jizya had been collected ever since the Muslim rulers took
control of India. Initially the Brahmins and some Buddhists were exempt but
later Feroz Shah Tughlaq had made the taxes mandatory for all non-Muslims.
Though handicapped with learning disabilities, Akbar appreciated art and
music and honored artists, whoever they were. Miniature paintings from his
era are considered to be masterpieces and the legendary musician Tansen was
his royal singer in his court. Akbar's reign also began an unprecedented
period of political stability in India. A crafty and intelligent minister
Birbal is the subject of much folklore. 24
During his reign, "Akbar never discriminated between Muslim and Hindus and
conferred nobility to many, with equal justice in mind." 24
As you can see the tolerance in Islam as practiced and carried by these
early Muslim leaders is unheralded in human history. Compare this to the
acts of barbarity, betrayal, murder, pillaging, force conversion, and
enslavement as practiced by the early church before the Protestant
Reformation. The early years of Christendom are filled with atrocities committed against Muslims, Jews, and other Christians who were considered
heretics. On January 2, 1492 the Muslim Kingdom of Granada fell to the Kings
of Castile, Ferdinand & Isabella. Under the agreement that transpired
between the kings of Castile and Granada's deposed ruler (Muhammed XII Abu'
Abd Allah (he was guaranteed safe passage by secretly handling over the
city), the Moors were guaranteed to worship and practice their religion.
However, by 1500 the rulers along with Cardinal Ximenes mandated that
Muslims either convert to Catholicism or driven out of Spain. Hence started
the bloody reign of the Spanish Inquisition, as we know it. Thousands of
Muslims were either forced converted or massacred on the streets. Every
vestige of Moorish culture was either destroyed or subverted. Mosques were
converted to churches. Books were burned. The Jewish inhabitants faced the
same consequences as their Moorish counterparts. Such ceased to be the
pageantry of Andalusia. It was indeed a graphic example of both treachery
and barbarism that the world had never known at that time. It is estimated
that upwards to 32 million people lost their lives in the Inquisition.
- "Graham's, Anti-Islamic Comments Sparks Controversy." Hate In The
News. 2002-MAR-21. Tolerance.org. See: http://www.tolerance.org/news/
- "Southern Baptists Pray For Muslims To Join Only True Religion." Hate
The News. 2002-MAR-21. Tolerance.org. See: http://www.tolerance.org/news/
- "Tennessee Pastor Gives Lesson In Religious Intolerance." Hate In The
News. 21 March 2002. Tolerance.org. See: http://www.tolerance.org/.
- "Mr. Robertson's Incitement." WashingtonPost.com. 2002-FEB-25,
- "Southern Baptist Convention Creates Furor Over Islam Comments...,"
CNN Crossfire. 2002-JUN-14. Cable News Network. See: http://www.cnn.com/.
- "Project Megiddo," Department Of Justice: Federal Bureau of
Investigations. Pages 30-31.
- Lyndon LaRouche, LaRouche's History-Making Statement Of May 1.
Virginia. 2002. Page 6.
- Ibid, Page 8.
- "The Truth About Islam." The Wisdom Fund. 2002-SEP-2,
- "Islam Explained." ICNA Project. 2002-SEP-2, at: http://www.whyislam.org/. You need software to
read these files. It can be obtained free from:
- Op cit, Lyndon LaRouche, Page 6.
- Nasar, Seyyed Hussein. "Al-Serat: Islam And The Question Of
Vol. XIII, No.2. 23 March 2002. See: http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Meaning Of The Holy Qur'an," Ed. Beltsville,
Maryland. 1997. (Surah 5:32). Page 257.
- Pickthall, Muhammad Marmaduke. "Tolerance In Islam." An
version of the 1927 Lecture. Ed. Dr. A. Zahoor. 2002-MAR-23, at: http://users.erols.com/gmqm/
- Yahya, Harun. "Islam Denounces Terrorism." Translated by Carl Rossini
Ron Evans. Ed. Aftab A. Malik. Bristol, England. (2002), Page 69. See:
- "Universal Islamic Declaration Of Human Rights." Islamic Council.
- Op Cit, Yahya, Harun, Page 13.
- Lyndon LaRouche, LaRouche's History Making Statement Of May 1. Page
- Hooker, Richard. "The Ottomans: Suleyman. " 2002-AUG-28. http://www.file://E/The Ottomans%S.
- Hebbar, Neria Harrish, MD. "A True Monarch: Akbar The Great."
Islam In India. 2002-AUG-28, at: http://www.indianet.com/history/011.htm.
Copyright © 2002 by Richard Dixon
Latest update: 2005-NOV-05
Author: Richard Dixon